浦和红钻今天比赛结果 www.bgxzad.com.cn 《英語自學教程筆記》是通過對大學英語自學教程的學習所記錄,對學習英語大有用處。

大學英語自學教程上冊筆記Unit 1-2

Ⅱ.Intensive reading:

1.Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement.

大多數學習第二語言的成年人會不同意這種說法的。

①本句主語為:Most adults who are learning a second language;謂語為:would disagree with;賓語為:this statement

②主語中包含有一個語法點,定語從句。這是英語中一個非常重要的語法點.顧名思義,定語從句應該在整個句中做定語,請對比如下兩句: He bought an interesting book.(定語) / He bought a book which is interesting.(定語從句)。具體介紹該語法點:

修飾名詞或代詞的從句稱為定語從句。被定語從句修飾的名詞或代詞叫做先行詞。定語從句必須放在先行詞后面,它需由關系代詞或關系副詞引導。

通常引導定語從句的關系代詞有:who, whom, (一般指人), which(一般指物),whose, that(人、物均可).關系副詞有:when(時間), where(地點), why(原因)。不管是關系代詞還是副詞引導定語從句時,要在定語從句中充當句子成分。上句中的who are learning a second language修飾先行詞most adults, who 是關系代詞,在從句中作主語。下面我們一起來看另幾個例句:仔細聽我的分析!

a.The man who/that will give us a talk has come.

b.I know a lady whose husband is a Nobel prize winner.

c.She’s the girl who/whom/that I met at the party.

d.I live in the room whose window faces south.

e.Did you find the bike that/which you lost?

③would此時為助動詞,表示“可能,將會”。

④需掌握的短語:disagree with sb about / on sth

e.g. He disagrees with his wife about the education of their son.

2.They need hundreds of hours of study and practice…

hundreds of:幾百,當hundred, thousand, million用作不確定數目時,需用復數形式,并加介詞of;當它們用作確定的數目時,不用復數形式。

e.g. five hundred people; hundreds of people

3.Language learning is different from other kinds of learning.

譯:語言學習不同于其他種類的學習。短語:be different from:與…不同

4.Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find it difficult to succeed in language learning. (*)

譯:有些人很聰明,在他們自己的專業領域很有成就,但發現很難成功地學習語言。

①本句主語Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields,謂語find,賓語difficult to succeed in language learning,it語法上稱作形式賓語:當賓語較長時,常將它移后在空出的位置上用it代替。

②包含定語從句who are very intelligent and successful in their fields,修飾先行詞some people, who在定語從句中作主語。

③需掌握的習語:be intelligent and successful in one’s field;

succeed in sth / doing sth

5.Conversely, some people who are very successful language learners find it difficult to succeed in other fields.(相反地…)

這句話意思和結構與上句相似,口頭分析。

6.Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways. (*)

譯:語言學習研究顯示成功的語言學習者在許多方面都是相似的。

①本句主語Language learning research;謂語:shows;賓語:that引導一個賓語從句。在賓語從句中successful language learners是主語;are是系動詞;similar in many ways是表語

②重要短語be similar (to sb/sth) in sth在…方面與某人/某事相似

7.Instead of waiting for the teachers to explain, they try to find the patterns and the rules for themselves. (*)

譯:不是等這老師解釋,而是自己努力去發現各種句型和規則。

①Instead of waiting for the teachers to explain,介詞短語作狀語,主語:they;謂語:try to find;賓語:the patterns and the rules for themselves

②介詞of后的動詞要用動名詞waiting

③短語:instead of sth; wait for sb to do sth; try to do sth;

8.They find people who speak the language and they ask these people to correct them when they make a mistake. (*)

譯:他們尋找說這種語言的人,當他們說錯時就請這些人幫助指正。

①這是一個由and連接的并列句,其中有一個定語從句who speak the language,修飾先行詞people;有一個時間狀語從句when they make a mistake

②correct: v 指正、糾正,短語:make a mistake 犯錯誤

9.They are not afraid to repeat what they hear or to say strange things.

譯:他們不害怕重復他們聽到的或說一些奇怪的東西。

①what they hear是repeat的賓語從句

②afraid的用法:be afraid of sth; be afraid to do sth; be afraid that 從句

a.She is afraid to go out alone at night.

b.I am afraid of snake.

c.He’s afraid that he’ll be late for class.

10.When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete.

譯:當交流困難時,他們會接受不準確或不完整的信息。

本句中包含一個時間狀語從句When communication is difficult,一個定語從句that is inexact or incomplete,修飾先行詞information,在從句中that作主語。

11.It’s more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word. (*)

譯:對他們來說,學會用所學的語言來思考比學會每個單詞的意思更重要。

①it作形式主語,真正主語是動詞不定式to learn to think in the language.原句語序應是:For them to learn to think in the language is more important than to know the meaning of every word.

用形式主語的目的是因為不定式作主語太長,為避免句子頭重腳輕,用it代替真正的主語。

e.g. For many people to learn English well is very difficult.

=It’s very difficult for many people to learn English well

②短語:learn to do sth學會做…; more important than …更重要

12.It’s necessary for them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them.

= For them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them are necessary

譯:對他們來說,學會這種語言以便同這些人交流并向他們學習是非常必要的

①這句話較復雜,it作形式主語,動詞不定式是真正的主語,in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them我們稱作目的狀語

②短語:in order to do sth; communicate with sb; learn from sb:向…學習

13.They find it easy to practice using the language regularly because they want to learn with it.

譯:因為他們想學會這種語言,所以他們發現不斷地練習實際應用這種語言是容易的。

①it作形式賓語,真正的賓語to practice using the language regularly,原因狀語從句because they want to learn with it.

②practice是動詞,英式英語拼寫形式是practise,美式英語動詞和名詞拼寫都是practice.作動詞時,后面只能用動名詞,如:practice speaking the language every day. (4段2行)

14.If you are a successful language learner, you have probably been learning independently, actively, and purposefully. (*)

譯:如果你是一名成功的語言學習者,你大概一直在獨立地、主動地、目的明確地學習。

①if引導條件狀語從句,主句中的have been learning是動詞的現在完成進行時,表示動作從以前開始一直不間斷地進行到現在。

②三個副詞:independently, actively, and purposefully 要會拼寫。

15.on the other hand, if your language learning has been less than successful, you might do well to try some of the techniques outlined above.

譯:另一方面來說,如果你的語言學習一直不太成功,你不妨試試上面提到的一些學習技巧。

①If your language learning has been less than successful是條件狀語從句。

②短語:on the other hand: 另一方面來說; less than successful: 不太成功; might do well to do sth:表示一種委婉語氣,不妨…,最好….

e.g. You might do well to take the doctor’s advice.

That’s all for this lecture, and let’s continue to learn this unit next time. Don’t forget to review what we have learnt. ok, see you then!