浦和红钻今天比赛结果 www.bgxzad.com.cn 愛思英語編者按:英語的名詞轉譯成漢語的動詞:英漢兩種語言具有不同的辭語結構。

英漢互譯時的詞性轉換

I.英語的名詞轉譯成漢語的動詞:英漢兩種語言具有不同的辭語結構。在漢語里,一個句子可以有多個動詞并排使用,不管有多少動詞,都可以按照先后的順序一個一個地排下去;而英語則是一門靜止的語言,在同等條件下,選擇用名詞的情況居多數,例如:

1.在名詞轉譯成動詞的句子中:a. My shock and embarrassment at finding Mother in tears on Wednesday was a perfect index of how little I understood the pressures on her(我星期三發現媽媽在流眼淚而感到震驚、尷尬,這就表明我對媽媽所承受的壓力知道的多么少。)

在這個句子當中,shock , embarrassment, index等等都是英語趨向于用名詞而不用動詞的最好例子b. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion and they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores.(他們一想到在公共場穿不時髦的衣服,就感到渾身不自在,而一些商店和設計師們正是利用了他們的這種弱點。)

c. As a boy and then as an adult, I never lost my wonder at the personality that was Einstein. (不論是在兒時還是長大以后,我一直都對愛因斯坦的人格感到很好奇。)

d. Most of my friends live in the city, yet they always to into raptures at the mere mention of the country. (我的大多數朋友都住在城里,然而,他們只要一提起鄉村就欣喜若狂。)

e. The availability of information on the INTERNET, for example, widens the possibilities of informal education immensely.(比如,由于人們能在INTERNET網上可以得到信息,這就大大擴大了獲得非正規教育的可能性。)

2.在一些特定結構中,如:介詞+ 名詞= 副詞a. It is wise of him to deal with the delicate problem with care and with calmness.(他很明智,在處理這一敏感問題時及盡仔細和謹慎。)

b. Einstein watched it in delight , trying to deduce the operating principle.(愛因斯坦很欣喜地看著它,想推斷出其中的操作原理。)

c. The soldier stared in surprise at the old farmer and the girl. (那個士兵很震驚地看著那個老農夫和女孩。)

d. The old man looked closely at the row of puddings with great interest(老人很感興趣地仔細打量起一排布丁。)

3.由形容詞變成的名詞:這類詞通常都是表示一類人,如:the poor/ oppressed/ exploited 4.在某些詞組中a. a good case in point after a while ,as a result ,at any rate ,break(burst ) into tears ,go into service ,in a sense in addition in exchange for,in other words in reality,out of place,run (fly )into rage take account of to certain extent to his disappointment to one ‘s taste b. To his surprise, Mr. Beck failed to come as expected.(奇怪的是,貝克先生來晚了。)

c. In all probability , I‘m sure that he’ll come.(我敢肯定,他完全可能來晚。)

d. He has said in all seriousness that their performance is perfect.(他很正經地說他們的演出很成功。)

e. I saw a man walking across the road with the obvious intention of talking to me.(我看到一個人穿過大街,明顯地想跟我交談。)

f. Of course, daydreaming is no substitute for hard work ……

(當然,白日夢不可能代替艱苦的工作。)

另外,還有一些句子也大量用名詞而不用動詞,翻譯時要特別注意詞性的轉換,如:g. That will help lead you to the attainment of your goals. (那會有助于你達到目標。)

h. But in combination with the more usual methods of self-development , it might make a critical difference. (但是,如果與通常的自我發展的方法相結合,他就能產生很大的不同。)

i. He said that this exercise of privilege of high-rank government officials will produce bad influence on people ‘s mind concerning our Party ’s image . (他說,政府高級官員濫用職權,將會在人們的心目中產生很壞的影響,損壞黨的形象。)

j. Those significant progress had been made in some industries, the general quality of industrial products leaves much to be desired. (一些工業取得了長足的進步,但是工業產品總的質量還亟待提高。)

k. When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious.(如果把男人和女人就流行款式方面作個比較,結論就很明顯了。)

l. In the light of these he puts further questions, and so on. (根據這些,他又提出了另外一些問題,如此等等。)

6.在一些特定的詞組中或格式中也趨向于用名詞。

a. be of(great )significance/ (little) use /(no) value/ (some) help / (vital)

importance(很有意義的)/ 很有用的)/ 很有價值)/ (很有幫助)/ (很重要)

b. My suggestion/ motion/ recommendation /idea

is that he(should) go there 我建議(想,提議,認為,主張)他去。

7.在一些表示結果的特定詞組中如: be shocked into stillness(驚呆了)

those people who toil to death(累得要命的人)

bore somebody to death(枯燥得要死)

be worried to death.(擔心得要命)

8.英語的句子結構緊湊,漢語里一個有主語有謂語可以獨立的分句,譯成英語可能就變成了一個名詞詞組,這就更說明了英語的名詞性特征。

a. The outbreak of the civil war totally damaged his splendid dream of contributing what he had for his country.(戰爭爆發徹底破壞了他那為國奉獻一切的夢想。)

b. The train was delayed by the heavy snowfall. (火車因為積雪而晚點。)

II. 英語的動詞結構反過來轉譯成漢語的名詞:一些由名詞派生的表示意愿、情緒等的動詞,在翻譯成漢語時往往還將其返回來譯成名詞:1. This course is intended to provide aid to those women who , for this reason or that, fail to get the opportunity to receive education.(這門課的目的就是給那些因為種種原因沒有機會上學婦女們提供幫助。)

2.A well-dressed man, who looked and talked like a millionaire , turned out to penniless。 (那個穿著講究,外表和談吐都象百萬富翁的人卻身無分文。)

3. Gordon Allport , an American psychologist , found nearly 18,000 English words characterizing differences in people‘s behavior. (美國的心理學家高頓。愛爾波特發現有一萬個英語單詞可以用來表達人們行為的不同特征。)

III.名詞轉移成形容詞:1. The speech presented by the visiting scholar left considerable excitement in his mind(那位到訪學者的演講著實讓他感到很激動。)

2. The room is small but very cozy and his satisfaction can be read from his face.(這間房間很小但很舒適,從他臉上一眼就可看出他很滿意。)

IV. 其它詞匯的轉譯方法:1.介詞譯成動詞a. If it‘s academic success you’re after,you can ‘t neglect studying. (如果你追求學術上的成功,一定不能忽視了學習。)

b. Those who are for the program please raise your hand.(同意這項計劃的人請舉手。)

c. Will those in favor of the proposal come to attend the meeting next Saturday ?

(贊成這項提議的人下星期六來開會好嗎?)

d. It wasn‘t that I was after money. I just wanted to make sure that he was found guilty again in the civil suit. (并不是因為我想要錢,我只是想讓他即使是在民事案件方面也被判有罪。)

2.副詞或形容詞轉譯成名詞:a. In an overcrowded country, very few people own enough to make them financially independent. 在一個人口過度稠密的國家里,很少有人能在財政上獨立。)

b. To be economically prosperous, China will apply more flexible policies of opening to the outside. (為了能達到經濟上的繁榮,中國將實行更為靈活的開放政策。)

c. Aside from offering financial support, work can keep us healthy not only physically but also mentally.(工作除了能給我們提供財政上的支持外,還能夠使我們在身體上和心理上保持健康。)

一些短語中:To be mentally prepared …。,心理上做好準備To be materially equipped………,物資上作好準備During the politically eventful late-1960s…。,政治上正置多事之秋的60年代。