浦和红钻今天比赛结果 www.bgxzad.com.cn 愛思英語編者按:自考英語翻譯技巧更新到這里,不知道對你有沒有幫助呢?

關于加詞、減詞等在翻譯時應注意的問題。

所謂加詞就是根據原文的思想內涵透過文字表達上的表面現象,充分照顧到另一種語言的文法特征、描述規律,在將其翻譯成另一種語言時該加詞的地方加詞,該減詞的地方減詞,千萬不可以為了可以追求所謂的“精練、簡潔”而隨隨便便地減詞;也不可以離開原文,憑空膩測,隨隨便便加詞。具體地說:

加詞:

I.由于詞匯方面的原因而引起的加詞現象:1.加動詞由于英語是一門“靜止”的語言,在所有的詞匯當中,用名詞的居多;而相比較而言,漢語則無此限制,不管有多少動詞都可以并排使用。因此,許多英語的名詞翻譯成漢語時都要加上一些動詞,否則,意思則很不完整,例如:a. But by 1981 he had to have further surgery on his hand. And a month later, he suffered as stroke. (到了1981年,他的手不得不又做了一次手術。一個月以后,他又中風了。)

b. His speech in at the meeting turned out exert an stimulating effect on the mind of the people present that day. (他那天在會上所做的報告使所有在場的人深受鼓舞。)

c. He maintain that only hard work and unswerving perseverance can lead to improved performance.(他堅持認為,只有通過勤奮工作加上不懈的努力才會取得好的成績。)

d. The lives claimed by shoddy construction projects should be enough to put governments at all levels on the alert. (偽劣建筑奪取了很多人的生命,這一點足以使我們的各級部門提高警惕。)

e. Efforts must be made to improve service for more than 1 million domestic and overseas tourists. (為了一百萬的國內外旅客的利益,我們一定為改善服務質量而進行努力。)

f. You ought to know better than to go swimming straight after a meal.(你不應該一吃過飯,馬上就去游泳,這是很不明智的。)

2.加名詞:在漢語中,及物和不及物動詞的區別不是很明顯,有時所謂及物動詞后面的賓語如果上下文中能夠看的出,往往可以省略不說;而英語則不然。由于英語對及物動詞和不及物動詞的區別很明顯,因此翻譯成漢語時則很麻煩。特別是一些不及物動詞必須帶上它后面的賓語句子意思才能顯得完整。因此,我們在翻譯時往往就需要增補。

a. Make a schedule or chart of you time and fill in committed time such as eating ,playing , meetings , classes, etc. (作一個時間表,然后,將吃飯、睡覺、開會、上課等等的時間填上。)

b. It was two hours before the old couple mustered up enough courage to get up and called the police and they explained that they‘d done that after much deliberation.(直到兩個小時以后,那對老夫妻才有勇氣敢從床上爬起來給警察打電話,并解釋說那也是經過仔細考慮才敢作的。)

c.這見事據說是一個組織嚴密團伙干的。

(The operation is believed to be the work of a well-organized organized group. )

d.我是為友誼和求學而來。

(I came here in the spirit of friendship and learning. )

有時形容詞前面也可以加上名詞:e. His wife thinks that this furniture is too expensive and , moreover looks very ugly.(他妻子認為,這件家具價格昂貴而且外表難看。)

f. I thus appeared to them to be quite familiar with this sort of situation and it confirmed them in their belief that I was a thoroughly disreputable character.(然后,我繼續裝著對這種事情很內行的樣子,結果更使他們認定我是一個名聲很壞的人。)

有時,一些名詞或者數量詞的復數形式翻譯成漢語后前面也要加詞表示重疊:g. Thousands of students from the city‘s colleges and universities jammed the railway station awaiting the arrival of their football team. (成千上萬的高校學生一起涌到火車站歡迎他們的足球隊凱旋。

h. These she bought the medical supplies with the large sums of money given to her by many friends to help her in the Crimea (她用朋友們給她的一筆筆錢購買醫療設備。)

i. To look after the hordes of sick men there were only a few old doctor who were helpless before such scene of suffering and misery. (只有這些老醫生來照看一群群的傷員,他們在如此的痛苦、悲傷面前,顯得無可奈何。

3.加代詞:這里的代詞主要是指作動詞賓語的代詞,因為英語中的所有及物動詞都必須帶有賓語,所以漢語翻譯成英語時也需要增補: a. If you like this novel , I can lend it to you.(如果你喜歡這本小說,我可以借給你。)

b. I think she‘d appreciate it if we all helped out a bit more.(我覺得如果我們能幫她一把,她回很感激的。)

c. Would you please look for the key once more? I remembered clearly putting it in the drawer last time. (能不能再找一遍鑰匙?我記得上次放在抽屜里了。)

4.加連詞和介詞:漢語可以通過上下文來連接句與句之間的邏輯關系,而英語則靠一些連接詞來完成:a. If you want to go, I would give you my advice that you take an umbrella.(你要去,我建議你別忘了帶把傘。)

b. Since its opening five years ago , the shop has attracted a lot of customers.(這家商店五年前開業以來,吸引了大批顧客。)

c. Since the beginning of this century, more and more scientists have become interested in the way the human brain works. (本世紀以來,越來越多的科學家已經開始對人腦活動的方式感興趣。)

d. His friends asked him to write them as soon as he got there. (他的朋友要他到了那兒就給他們寫信。)

e. He went so far as to cheat openly on test. (他居然敢公開作弊。)

f. The factory has decided to mass-produce the equipment at a low cost. (這家工廠已經決定低成本、大批量的生產這種儀器。)

g. Why was he absent from school yesterday?

(他昨天為什么不上學?)

h. The older leader gave us the suggestion that we be free from arrogance and rashness.(老領導告戒我們要戒驕戒躁。)

i. This , he said, deprived him of his civil rights , and he asked for $150,000 in damages. (他說,這等于是剝奪了他的公民權力,因此申請$150,000 的賠償。)

j. His marriage suffered and ended in divorce.(他的婚姻也受到影響,最后還是離了婚。)

k. After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute as settled.(幾輪會談以后,雙方認為邊界問題可以解決了。)

l. As her year as chief resident drew to a close, Mrs. White decided to specialize in children ‘s diseases. (在她作住院總醫師要結束時,懷特太太決定專攻病理。)

5.下面的一些句子則是為了修辭目的而加詞:a. He was sentenced as much as six months in jail for drunk driving.(他因酗酒駕駛而被判入獄半年。)

b. As many as twenty people were killed in the accident yesterday.(二十個人在昨天的事故當中喪生。)

c. I came here as early as eight o‘clock this morning. (我今天八點鐘就來了。)

6 . 在某些作定語的不定式結構中,介詞有時需要加上:a. I‘d like to find someone to play with (我想找人玩。)

b. Would you please pass me a piece of paper to write on. (你能否遞張紙給我,我想寫點東西。)

c. Totally alone in the room, her mother wanted to find someone to talk to (她媽媽覺得一個人在房間里太孤單了,想找個人說說話。)

7.某些獨立結構中:With a book in his hand , the teacher came into the class. (老師走了進來,手里拿本書。)

8.加副詞a. They started up into the sky until the noise of the rocket died away.(他猛地抬頭往天空看,直到火箭發射的聲音漸漸遠去。)

b. He stole a glance at the pretty girl walking alongside with him. (他偷偷地瞥了他一眼。)

9.有時還要根據實際需要,加上一些表示“范疇”的詞,即表示籠統意思的單詞,意見、想法、道理等等。

a. The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. (因此,對社會活動家來說,培養業余愛好和新的興趣就成為頭等重要的事情了。但這不是一蹴而就的事情,也不能單靠毅力就能臨時湊成。)

b. A situation in which such a large number of students cheat openly on the exam and escape punishment is very dangerous and cannot last long(如此多的學生作弊,居然沒人管,是很危險的,也不可能持久。)

c. So he began to study the children‘s responses in situation where no milk was provided(所以,他開始研究小孩子得不到牛奶時的反應是什么樣的。)

以上的幾句雖然沒有“局面”、“情況”等詞,但其意思卻已經包含在了里面。如果不加上“policy”,“business”,“situation ”等詞,意思就不是很清楚,句子也不通順。

II. 由于漢英結構不同而造成的加詞現象:

1.由上下文的邏輯關系而引起的加詞現象:句子結構方面:a. In most cases, this action will produce results. However , if it does not , there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction. (在大多數情況下,這樣做有一定效果。如果還不行,顧客可以采取許多措施直至滿意為止。)

b. They illustrate, for one thing, the underlying American faith that our future rests on the way our children turn out, and that a basic way to affect children‘s development is through their education. (有一點,他們表明了美國人內心深處的一個信念,那就是,我們的孩子如何成長將決定我們的未來,而影響他們發展的一個基本途徑就是通過教育。)

c. That men have learned much from the behavior of animals is hardly new. (人類已經從動物的行為中學到了很多東西的說法并不是什么新鮮事。)

下面的例句都是一些需要加關系代詞的現象:d. He passed the exam , which can be read from his the light on his face. (我從他臉上就可以猜出他已通過了考試。)

e. He was late on that very morning for the interview , which totally damaged the possibilities of promotion. (他偏偏在面試的那天早晨遲到,結果喪失了一次晉升的絕好機會。)

f. As is expected , he arrived at the railway station in time. (他果然準時到了火車站)

2.在無主句、存在句或一些祈使句中中加主語。

因為在這些句子中,主語雖然沒有表示出來,但卻早已隱含在句子里面;加上英語對句子表面上的結構要求非常嚴謹,因此在漢語翻譯成英語時往往要加上省略的部分(主語)意思才能完整,例如:a.進行社會主義現代化建設必須尊重知識、尊重人才。

(In our drive for socialist modernization, we must respect knowledge and talented people. )

b.你還是帶把雨傘吧,以防下雨。

(You ‘d better take an umbrella in case it rains. )

c.已經快七點種了,他怎么還沒有到?

( It is nearly seven o ‘clock now , why hasn ’t he arrived yet?)

d.一定不要忘記離家前父母對你所說的話。

(Remember what your said to you before you left home.)

有時,英語的動名詞需要加上其邏輯主語才能顯得意思完整:e. His father-in-law doesn‘t appreciate his smoking cigarette so heavily.(他的岳父對他抽這么多的煙很不以為然。)

3.加賓語她媽媽說,他們應該帶孩子一起去參加馬麗的生日晚會。

(Her mother said that they should bring their baby with them to Mary ‘s birthday party.)

4.有時需要加上語氣詞:There were no houses whatsoever when we crossed the marshlands on the Long March , we just slept where we could.(我們長征時根本就沒房子住,隨便找個地方就睡下了。)

The audience was not interested at all(in any sense) in his long and boring speech.(觀眾對他那又臭又長的講話一點都不感興趣。)

減詞:

I.和一些單詞有關系的減詞法1.省略“范疇”詞:先看下面的例子:a.系里的領導來找他做說服工作。

(The leader of the department came to him to the undertake the persuasion)

b.這次考試不及格,使他深切認識到寫好作文在學習英文中的重要性。

(The failure of this exam made him aware of the importance of writing in learning English.)

c.這本書的目的是改進學生們的理解能力。

II. 表示邏輯關系上的減詞:1.省去句子的主要結構只保留關聯詞:a. The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so , the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible.(商店的老板會建議顧客給制造商寫信。要真是這樣的話,顧客應該盡量把投訴書寫的禮貌些、措辭更堅定一些。)

b. And how can it be otherwise, when the range of knowledge is so vast that the expert himself is an ignoramus as soon as he strays away from his own specialty. (可是不這樣,有能有什么別的更好的辦法呢?知識的范圍如此廣袤,一旦越出其專業范圍,連專家也會變得一無所知。)

c. It must be admitted that every nation has its strong points. If not, how can it survive ?

(每個民族都有它的優點,不然,怎么可以生存下來?)

2.省去主語:d. When completed , this bridge will be the largest in Asia. (這座橋一旦竣工將是亞洲最大的。)

e. In some organization , important papers , letters, speeches , documents, etc,are kept on file so that they can be easily obtained when needed. (在許多組織里,重要的文件、信函、演講材料、檔案都保存在文件夾里,以便需要時很容易查到。)