浦和红钻今天比赛结果 www.bgxzad.com.cn 營養學家一直告訴人們多吃蔬菜水果有益健康,但并不是只要是蔬菜水果就可以隨便吃,吃什么、吃多少取決于每個人的身體情況。吃錯蔬菜水果,不但會有副作用,可能還會讓你生病。下面這些蔬果不能亂吃。

蔬菜和水果也不能亂吃!專家:亂吃可致病

截圖來自每日郵報網站

AVOCADO 鱷梨(牛油果)

People who are sensitive to latex can also have an allergic reaction to avocado.

對乳膠敏感的人可能對鱷梨也會有過敏反應。

Latex comes from the sap of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. A study of 137 patients with rubber latex allergy, published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, found that 21.1 percent were also allergic to particular foods, including banana (18.3 percent) and avocado (16.3 percent).

乳膠來自橡膠樹的汁液。一項發表在《美國飲食協會學報》上的研究在調查了137位對膠乳過敏的患者后發現,21.1%的患者也對特定食物過敏,其中包括香蕉(18.3%)和鱷梨(16.3%)。

This is because some of the proteins in latex that cause allergic reactions are also present in these fruits.

這是因為乳膠中會導致過敏反應的一些蛋白質在這些水果中也存在。

The same cross-reactivity can happen with kiwi fruit, says Professor Jean Emberlin, scientific director of Allergy UK. ‘The proteins are very similar in both the latex and the fruit, so they can trigger similar reactions.’

英國過敏協會的科學主任瓊·艾姆伯林教授說,獼猴桃也會產生同樣的交叉過敏反應?!叭榻漢外ê鍰抑械牡鞍字史淺O嗨?,所以會引發相似的過敏反應?!?/p>

Symptoms include tingling in the mouth, stuffy nose, itchy eyes, wheezing and, in rare cases, life-threatening anaphylaxis.

過敏癥狀包括口腔刺痛、鼻塞、眼睛癢、哮喘,在極少數情況下還可能引發致命的過敏性反應。

CHERRIES 櫻桃

蔬菜和水果也不能亂吃!專家:亂吃可致病

截圖來自每日郵報網站

‘Cherry stones can be dangerous if chewed and then swallowed, as they contain a chemical compound based on the poison cyanide,’ says Dr Sanjay Prasad, a consultant cardiologist at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London.

倫敦皇家布朗普頓醫院的心臟科顧問醫師桑杰·普拉薩德說:“將櫻桃核咀嚼后吞下會有危險,因為櫻桃核含有一種本質為有毒氰化物的化合物?!?/p>

If the stone is ground down, say by chewing, then the compound amygdalin, a form of cyanide, is released.

如果櫻桃核被嚼碎或碾碎,這種名為苦杏仁苷的化合物(一種氰化物)就會釋放出來。

This can cause fever, headaches, falling blood pressure and, in extreme cases, can be fatal.

攝入這種化合物會導致發燒、頭痛、血壓下降,在極端情況下還可致命。

Research suggests the cyanide compound in cherries could be fatal in doses as small as 1.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

根據歐洲食品安全局的數據,研究顯示,櫻桃中氰化物的攝入量只要達到每公斤體重1.5毫克,就會致命。

A single cherry yields roughly 170 mg of cyanide per gram of seed — which means ingesting one or two freshly crushed stones could be dangerous. Apricot kernels also contain high levels of amygdalin — eating more than three small, raw apricot kernels, or less than half of one large kernel, can be a serious health risk, says the EFSA.

每克櫻桃核大約會產生170毫克的氰化物,這意味著吃下一兩個剛碾碎的櫻桃核就會很危險。據歐洲食品安全局稱,苦杏仁也含有大量苦杏仁苷,吃下三個以上的生的小苦杏仁,或者不到半個大苦杏仁,就會對健康產生嚴重危害。

The chemical is also found in apple seeds — but you would have to eat two cups of ground seeds for it to be fatal.

蘋果核中也含有這種化合物,不過要吃掉兩杯碾碎的蘋果核才會有生命危險。

GRAPEFRUIT 葡萄柚

If you’re taking statins, check with your doctor whether you can have grapefruit juice, says Dr Prasad. ‘Statins are broken down by an enzyme in the liver, CYP3A, which normally reduces the amount of drug that enters your bloodstream.’

普拉薩德醫生說,如果你正在服用他汀類藥物,和你的醫生確認一下你能否喝葡萄柚汁?!案臥嘀幸恢置狢YP3A的酶能分解他汀類藥物,正常情況下會減少進入血流的藥物量?!?/p>

But grapefruit contains compounds that affect the function of CYP3A and therefore increases the potency of the drug (because less is broken down).

但是葡萄柚所含的化合物會影響CYP3A的功能,從而增加藥物的效力(因為被分解掉的藥量變少了)。

BANANAS 香蕉

蔬菜和水果也不能亂吃!專家:亂吃可致病

截圖來自每日郵報網站

Avoid very large quantities of bananas if you’ve had kidney problems, as they contain the mineral potassium.

如果你有腎病,不要吃太多香蕉,因為它們含有礦物鉀。

‘Kidneys regulate the amount of potassium in the body and if they’re functioning normally, they can control intake,’ explains Paul Cathcart, a consultant urological surgeon at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital in London.

倫敦蓋伊和圣托馬斯醫院的泌尿外科顧問醫師保羅·卡思卡特解釋道:“腎能調節體內的鉀含量,如果腎臟正常運轉,就能控制人體吸收的鉀?!?/p>

But kidneys that don’t function normally can allow potassium to build up, potentially triggering hyperkalemia, which causes nausea, a slower pulse and an irregular heartbeat.

但是,不能正常運轉的腎臟會讓鉀不斷累積,從而可能引發高鉀血,導致惡心、脈搏變慢和心跳不齊等癥狀。

‘So if you have a renal impairment or have had kidney disease, you should have a lower potassium intake,’ says Mr Cathcart.

卡思卡特說:“所以,如果你有腎損傷或腎病,應該少攝入鉀?!?/p>

Healthy adults need about 3,500mg of potassium a day, says dietitian Dr Sarah Schenker. The average banana contains between 400 mg and 450 mg, so you’d have to eat more than seven-and-a-half bananas to reach that level.

營養學家莎拉·申克爾博士說,健康的成人每天需要大約3500毫克鉀。一根普通的香蕉含有400到450毫克的鉀,所以你必須吃7根半香蕉才能達到這一水平。

BEETROOT 甜菜根

If you’ve had kidney stones, avoid beetroot, says Bhaskar Somani, a consultant urological surgeon and honorary senior lecturer in urology at University Hospital Southampton.

南安普頓大學醫院泌尿外科顧問醫師和榮譽高級講師巴斯卡·索曼尼說,如果你有腎結石,就不要吃甜菜根。

‘Beetroot contains oxalates — substances that prevent calcium being absorbed.’

“甜菜根含有草酸——這種物質可以阻止鈣被人體吸收?!?/p>

Most people’s bodies can break down and eliminate these substances via the kidney or colon. But in some people, oxalates can accumulate, leading to stones.

多數人的身體都可以通過腎臟或結腸來分解和消除這些物質。但對有些人而言,草酸則會在體內積聚,引發結石。

SPROUTS 豆芽菜

Sprouts should be avoided if you’re taking the anticoagulant drug warfarin, used to help prevent blood clots or to keep a clot from getting bigger, advises Yoon Loke, a professor of medicine and pharmacology at the University of East Anglia.

東安格利亞大學的醫藥學教授永恩·洛克建議,如果你正在服用抗凝血藥物華法林,就不要吃豆芽菜。

‘This is because green, leafy vegetables such as sprouts and spinach are high in vitamin K, a nutrient needed to make clotting factors in the body — the opposite of what warfarin does, which is to thin the blood.

“這是因為豆芽菜和菠菜等綠葉蔬菜含有大量維生素K——一種凝血因子所需的營養物質——和華法林正相反,華法林會讓血液變稀?!?/p>

‘So vitamin K inhibits the effects of warfarin.’

“所以維生素K會抑制華法林的藥效?!?/p>

CABBAGE 卷心菜

蔬菜和水果也不能亂吃!專家:亂吃可致病

截圖來自每日郵報網站

Raw cabbage, along with cauliflower and kale, contains goitrogens — substances that can affect thyroid function by blocking production of the hormone thyroxine, says Dr Mark Vanderpump, a consultant endocrinologist at The Physicians’ Clinic in London.

倫敦內科醫生診所的內分泌科顧問醫師馬克·范德普說,生卷心菜和花椰菜、羽衣甘藍一樣含有致甲狀腺腫因子,這種物質能通過阻止甲狀腺激素的分泌影響甲狀腺功能。

The hormone helps to absorb iodine, which is essential for normal thyroid function.

這種激素有助于吸收碘,而碘對于正常的甲狀腺功能至關重要。

The effects are small, so cabbage is unlikely to cause problems in healthy people and those who are taking the drug levothyroxine for underactive thyroid.

由于作用比較小,所以卷心菜不太可能讓健康的人和因甲狀腺機能低下而服用左旋甲狀腺素的人身體出問題。

‘But these vegetables may be an issue for those who have a low thyroid function but haven’t been diagnosed. Symptoms include tiredness and weight gain,’ says Dr Vanderpump.

范德普醫生說:“但這些蔬菜對于那些甲狀腺機能低下但還未被診斷出的患者可能是個問題。甲狀腺機能低下的癥狀包括疲倦和增重?!?/p>

BROAD BEANS 蠶豆

Tyramine, found in foods including broad beans, chocolate and hard cheese, is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure.

蠶豆、巧克力和硬質奶酪等食物所含的酪胺是一種有助于調節血壓的氨基酸。

However, if you take one of the older forms of antidepressant known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the drug can block the enzyme that breaks down excess tyramine.

但是,如果你服用比較老的抗抑郁藥單胺氧化酶抑制劑,這種藥物會阻斷能分解過多酪胺的酶。

A build-up of tyramine can lead to critically high blood pressure, says Dr Prasad.

普拉薩德醫生說,酪胺的累積可引發嚴重的高血壓。

CRANBERRIES 蔓越橘

Cranberry juice contains salicylic acid, a key ingredient in aspirin, so reduce the amount you drink if you take aspirin regularly (it is often prescribed as a blood thinner for those who have had a heart attack), as this could thin the blood further.

蔓越橘汁含有水楊酸,這是阿司匹林中的關鍵成分,所以如果你定期服用阿司匹林(醫生經常給發作過心臟病的人開阿司匹林,因為這能稀釋血液),就要少喝蔓越橘汁,否則會讓血液進一步變稀。

‘Drinking more than three glasses of cranberry juice a day can increase the amount of salicylic acid in your body,’ says Professor Loke. ‘To be on the safe side, keep intake to less than this if you take aspirin regularly.’

洛克教授說:“每天喝超過三杯的蔓越橘汁會增加體內的水楊酸。如果你定期服用阿司匹林,安全起見,喝蔓越橘汁不要超過三杯?!?/p>

Salicylic acid could also potentially affect how you metabolise warfarin.

水楊酸還可能影響體內華法林的代謝。

英文來源:每日郵報

翻譯&編輯:丹妮